The murmillo was equipped with a gladius and
a scutum (large rectangular shield) which resembles
the legionary infantry. He wore a manica to protect
his sword arm and a short ocrea (greave) on his left leg.
His helmet with a visor had a high angular crest which was
decorated with colorful feathers. His standard opponent was
Thraex (also thrax, threx, i.e. "Thracian")
The armatura of the thraex still reminded of his origin
from Thracia. He was equipped with the sica (sword
with a curved blade) and a parmula (small rectangular
curved shield, in contrast to the large scutum). His
visored helmet had a crest, which always ended in a griffin
head. Like the murmillo, he also had a manica
to protect his sword arm. He also had padded leg protection
over which he wore a pair of high greaves ending above his
An alternative to the pairing murmillo - thraex
could have been the pairing murmillo - hoplomachus.
Exceptionally the hoplomachus would also fight against
the thraex. The hoplomachus resembled the thraex
a lot, except that he had a hasta instead of the sica
and a parma (a round shield similar to the Greek hoplite
shield). For close combat he carried a pugio or gladius.